Role of Stakeholders in Heritage Management in Bangladesh: A Case Study of Mahasthangarh
Keywords:Stakeholders, Heritage Management, Mahasthangarh, Bangladesh.
The notion of stakeholders is becoming increasingly significant in heritage management activities and planning. It is commonly argued that individuals, groups, organizations, environs, societies, institutions, and even the natural environment can be potential stakeholders. However, most of the case heritage sites are impacted and concerned by particular stakeholders such as the local community, regional government, and NGOs. Every project has stakeholders who can influence or be influenced by the project in a positive or negative manner.
Mahasthangarh and its environs are a potential heritage site of South Asia that helps understand the chronological history and cultural development of Bengal Civilization. Like many other heritage sites in Bangladesh, Mahasthangarh faces serious threats and challenges which are damaging and waning its outstanding universal value of tangible and intangible heritage. Since site managers involve potential key stakeholders to enhance the sustainable heritage management, planning, reduce the possibility of conflict, increase the stakeholders’ ownership through regular communication, raising awareness, educational activities, and building campaigns, and to augment the community’s trust in heritage management; without the effective role of stakeholders, the outcomes are precarious and can be catastrophic. The paper will demonstrate the possibilities of using the roles of stakeholders as potential tools for safeguarding and managing the heritage site by using Mahasthangarh and its environs as a case study.
Aas, C., Ladkin, A., & Fletcher, J. (2005). Stakeholder collaboration and heritage management. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(1), pp. 28–48. DOI:10.1016/j.annals.2004.04.005
Ahmed, N. (1981). Mahasthan, Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh, Dacca.
Ali M., and Bhattacharjee, S. B., (1986). Archaeological Survey of Bogra District. Dacca: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums.
Bott, A. L., Grabowski, S., & Wearing, S., (2011). Stakeholder Collaboration in a Prospective World Heritage Area: The case of Kokoda and the Owen Stanley Ranges, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Journal, Vol.3, No.2, ISSN: 1837-5391, UTSe Press, Sydney, Australia.
Bhandarkar, D. R. (1931). Mauryan Brahmi Inscription of Mahasthan, Epigraphy Indica, XXI (14): 83-91.
Burra Charter, (1979 & 2013). The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance, Burra, Australia.
Cunningham, A., (1882). Report of a Tour in Bihar and Bengal in 1879-80 from Patna to Sunargaon, Archaeological Survey of India Reports, Vol.XV:Delhi: Indological Book House.
Driscoll, C., & Starik, M. (2004). The Primordial Stakeholder: Advancing the Conceptual Consideration of Stakeholder Status for the Natural Environment. Journal of Business Ethics, 49(1), 55–73. doi:10.1023/b:busi.0000013852.62017.0e
Faruque, M.HS. (2014). River Research Institute. In S. Islam (Ed.), Banglapedia:National encyclopedia of Bangladesh (2nd ed.). Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved (25 June 2020) from: http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=River_Research_Institute.
Feilden, B., Jokilehto, J. (1998). Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites, ICCROM, Roma.
GHF (2012). Global Heritage in the Peril: Sites on the Verge. Global Heritage Fund. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
Hajialikhani, M. R., (2008). A Systematic Stakeholders Management Approach for Protecting the Spirit of Cultural Heritage Sites, ICOMOS 16th General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Quebec.
Hossain, M. M., (2006). Mahasthan: Anecdote to History, Dibyaprakash, Dhaka.
ICOMOS, (1990). Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage, Retrieved from (20 June 2020) http://www.icomos/icahm/documents/charter.html.
ICOMOS, (1987). Charter for The Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (Washington Charter 1987), Adopted by ICOMOS General Assembly in Washington, DC. Retrieved from (20 September 2019) https://www.icomos.org/charters/towns_e.pdf.
Jamal, T., & Stronza, A. (2009). Collaboration theory and tourism practice in protected areas: stakeholders, structuring, and sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(2), 169– 189. doi:10.1080/09669580802495741
Karim, A. (1992). Corpus of the Arabic and Persian Inscriptions of Bengal, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, pp. 56-58.
Khandakar, M.A.T. (2014). Bangladesh Water Development Board. In S. Islam (Ed.), Banglapedia:National encyclopedia of Bangladesh (2nd ed.). Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved (25 June 2020) from: http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Bangladesh_Water_Development_Board
Majumdar, R.C. (1971). Rise of Gauda and Vanga, In R.C. Majumdar (Ed.), The History of Bengal, vol-1, Hindu period, (2nd ed. pp. 47-59), N.V. publication, Lohanipur, Patna-3, India.
Millar, S., (2006). 'Stakeholders and community participation', in A. Leask & A. Fyall (eds), Managing world heritage sites, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 37-55.
Mitchell, R.K., Agle, B.R., & Wood, D.J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–886.
Pedersen, A. (2002). Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: A Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris.
PMI, (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK-Guide), 6th Edition, Project Management Institute, USA.
Rahman, S. M. (2000). Archaeological Investigation in Bogra District (from early historic to early medieval period), The International Centre for Study of Bengal Art, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Salles, F. J., and Alam, S. ed. (2001 & 2018). First (& Second) Interim Report 1993-1999. France-Bangladesh joint venture excavations at Mahasthangarh, Department of Archaeology, Dhaka.
Sen, P. C. (1929). Mahasthan and its Environs. Varendra Research Society Monograph no. 2. Rajshahi: Varendra Research Society.
Siddiq, M. Y., (2017). Arabic and Persian Inscriptions of Bengal, (with 607 plates), International Center for Study of Bengal Art, Dhaka.
Siddiq, A. & Habib, A. (2017). The formation of Bengal Civilization: A glimpse on the socio-cultural assimilations through political progressions in Bengal Delta. Artuklu Human and Social Science Journal, 2(2), 1-12.
Tosun, C. (2000). Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries. Tourism Management, 21(6), pp. 613–633.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 CenRaPS Journal of Social Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.