The Calcutta Marwaris and the Swadeshi Movement: In the Context of Boycott and Swadeshi Politics (1905-1907)


Abstract views: 123 / PDF downloads: 40

Authors

  • Imran Shaikh Research Scholar (PhD), Department of History, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, West Bengal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46291/cenraps.v5i2.114

Keywords:

Marwari, Swadeshi, Boycott, Partition, Banian, Lucky Day, Manchester

Abstract

At the dawn of the 20th century, an organized struggle against the partition of Bengal significantly influenced the trajectory of Indian politics. The Swadeshi movement engendered political extremism within the realm of Indian nationalism, leading a contingent of educated Bengalis to take up arms against British rule. In these circumstances, Bengali leaders adopted the policies of 'Boycott' and 'Swadeshi' to undermine British economic interests in Bengal. This paper seeks to explore the role played by the Marwari community of Calcutta in the anti-partition movement of 1905. During that era, the Marwaris were integral to the European trading system. They procured raw materials from various parts of the country for export and served as distributors of foreign products in the local market. Marwari traders were aligned with the British in the realm of commerce. Given this context, it is natural to question how the Marwari traders of Calcutta reacted to the boycott of foreign goods. What if we were to uncover, albeit sparingly, instances of Marwaris supporting the anti-partition boycott movement in history? This paper aims to address the following questions to comprehend the involvement of Calcutta's Marwaris in the 1905 Swadeshi Movement. Firstly, to what extent did the policy of boycotting foreign goods succeed within the Swadeshi movement? Secondly, what was the impact of the 'Boycott' and 'Swadeshi' policies on the Calcutta Marwaris? And thirdly, did the Calcutta Marwaris indeed participate in the Swadeshi Movement, and if so, what motivated their involvement? Most prevailing studies have dismissed the participation of the Marwari Community of Calcutta in the Swadeshi movement. This paper aims to uncover the answers to these questions and shed light on the extent of the Marwari community of Calcutta's involvement in the Swadeshi movement.

References

Rajnarayan Bose, Atmchrit, 227. Cited in, Amlesh Tripathi, Bharoter Mukti Songramer Chromponthi Porbo (Calcutta: Ananda Publishers, 1987, 9th ed. 2018), 115.

Bholanath Chandra, Mukherjee's Magazine, Vols 2-5, Cited in, Tripathi, Bharoter Mukti Songramer Chromponthi Porbo, p.116.

Daily Hitavadi, August 7, 1905, Report on Native Papers in Bengal, Week Ending August 12, 1905. In West Bengal State Archive.

Roy, L. The Swadeshi Movement, Indian Review, Vol.7, pp.- 333-36.

Chattopadhyay, R. (1905). Deshi Jiniser Bybhar. Pravasi, 5th volume. (6th issue). pp.- 346-352.

Sanjibani, April 26, 1906, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), week ending May 5, 1906. See also Daily Hitavadi, October 10, 1906, R. N. P. B., Week Ending October 13, 1906, p. 907. In WBSA.

Fortnightly Report from Government of Bengal, 17 September 1906 -Home Public Progs B, October 1906, 13.

Daily Hitavadi, July 9, 1906, Report on Native Papers in Bengal (Confidential), Week Ending July 14, 1906,

Home Public Progs Deposit, December 1906, n. 38, 43.

Sriramprana Gupta, Swadeshi, Pravasi, Part VI, Number 7, 1906, 371-374.

Modi, 616-17. (Babu Ramkumar Goenka, Sadaram Kheria, Phulchand Chowdhury, Ramgopal Khemka, Nagarmal Modi,

Radhakrishna Neotia (Ed.), Barabazaar Ke Kariyakarta: Remembrance and Tribute, (Calcutta: Sri Barabazaar Kumarasva Books, 1982) 52.

Hitbarta, October 1, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending October 7, 1905, 982.

Aryabarta, November 28, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending November 11, 1905, 1063.

Hindu Patriot, January 6, 1906, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending, Saturday, January 6, 1906, 23.

Sangbad Bahika, October 18, 1906, , R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending November 3, 1906, 967.

Balchand Modi, Desh ke Itihasa Me Marwarira Jatika Sthana, (Calcutta: New Rajasthan Press, 1940), 613.

Bharat Mitra, 16 September 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending September 23, 1905, 929.

Dhaka Gazette, September 18, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending 23 September 1905, 930.

Golden Jubilee Souvenir, 1900-1950, India Chamber of Commerce p.8.

The Daily Hitavadi, September 26, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending 30 September, 1905, 956-957.

Shivnath Shastri, Swadeshi Dhua, Pravasi, Part Five, Number Three, 125.

Hitbarta, November 5, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending November 11, 1905, 1065.

Hitbarta, October 1, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending 7 October 1905, 982.

The Daily Hitavadi, November 12, 1905, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending 18 November 1905, 1092.

Hitbarta, 21 January 1906, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending 27 January, 80.

Hitbarta, 28 January 1906, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending February 3, 1906, 97.

Sanjeevani, September 13, 1906, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending 22 September 1906, 864.

Charu-Mihir, 18th September, 1906, R. N. P. B. (Confidential), Week Ending September 29, 1906, 881.

Downloads

Published

2024-01-23

How to Cite

Shaikh, I. (2024). The Calcutta Marwaris and the Swadeshi Movement: In the Context of Boycott and Swadeshi Politics (1905-1907). CenRaPS Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2), 76–91. https://doi.org/10.46291/cenraps.v5i2.114

Issue

Section

Articles